英語 勉強

NY Times

NY Times から、都市部の猛暑対策の記事です。東京オリンピックのマラソンについても触れられています。

5 Ways to Keep Cities Cooler During Heat Waves

Cities can be miserable during heat waves. All that concrete and asphalt soaks up the sun’s rays, pushing temperatures up even further. Tall buildings can block cooling breezes. Exhaust from cars and air-conditioners just adds to the swelter.

This is known as the urban heat island effect: A large city’s built-up environment can make it 2 to 5 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than the surrounding countryside during the day and up to 22 degrees warmer at night. That extra heat is becoming a serious public health problem.

In recent years, some urban planners have been seeking out creative strategies to combat the heat island effect to provide relief and prevent more people from dying during brutal hot spells. “Cities need to realize that they have the power to change their own weather,” said Brian Stone, Jr., a professor at Georgia Tech’s School of City and Regional Planning.

Some cities can’t afford to wait. Tokyo, which has suffered a record heat wave this month, is desperate to cool off ahead of the 2020 Summer Olympics. The city has already added new porous asphalt that can retain more water and new coatings that can reflect heat across more than 50 miles of roadways, including the planned marathon route. The hope is that these materials can cut road surface temperatures by 10 degrees or more. Even that may not be enough: Some researchers have already suggested moving the marathon out of Tokyo entirely for the athletes’ safety.

Ways to ~ する方法
Keep 人・モノ ~ の状態に保つ
Heat wave熱波 猛暑 cold wave 寒波
Miserable みじめな 悪い can be miserable 惨めになり得る  miserable wet weather びちょびちょの雨降り
Soak (up) ~ を吸う
Ray 光線 x-ray レントゲン
Push up 押し上げる
Temperature 温度  degree 度  Fahrenheit カ氏 Celsius 摂氏  98 degrees F (98ºC) = 36.6 degrees C
Further 度合いが更に farther 更に遠くに
Block ~ 遮る
Exhaust 排気ガス exhaust ~ (体力・資金等)を使い切る  be exhausted 疲れ果てている
Air-conditioning エアコン = AC
Add to ~ へ足す
Swelter 焼け付く暑さ 暑さで苦しむ 暑くさせる
Heat island effect ヒートアイランド現象 effect 効果
Built-up 建物や商業ビルで覆われた  積み重なること
Surround ~ を囲む
Countryside 田舎 = the country 都市 the city
During the day / night 日中・夜間
Serious 深刻な
Public health problem 公衆衛生 公共の健康問題
Recent 最近
Urban planner 都市計画専門家
Seek (out) ~ を探す 求める = look for
Creative strategy 独創的な戦略 創造的な戦略
Combat ~ と戦う = fight ~
Provide / supply 人 with モノ を提供する
Relief 解放 休息
Prevent ~ from ~ を~から防ぐ
Brutal hot spell 酷い暑い時期・時間 brutal 容赦ない spell 時間 時期
Realize ~ を認識する
Weather 天気 climate 気候
Afford to ~ する余裕がある  を与える・許す
Wait 待つ
Suffer ~ を被る suffer from ~ から苦しむ
Be desperate to ~ 必死でする しようと必死
Cool off 冷ます 冷める  cool down 落ち着く
Ahead of ~ の先に・前に 先駆けて
The Olympics = the Olympic games
Porous 穴が沢山ある 多孔性の
Retain ~ を蓄える 保つ
Coating 表面加工
Reflect ~ 反射する
Across ~ にまたがって
Roadway 道路 = road
Material 物質
Surface 表面
Suggest / propose / recommend ~ ing することを提案・推薦する   (仮定法) propose / suggest / recommend that 主語 + 動詞原形 することを提案・示唆・推薦する  (口語的には現在形も使われる)
Entirely 完全に
Athlete 運動選手

1) Bring Back the Trees 緑を復活させる。
2) Let the Wind Blow 風を吹かせる。
3) Paint Roofs White 屋根を白く塗る。
4) Get People to Cooling Centers クーラーを効かせた地域施設の開放。
5) Prepare for Deadly Blackouts

引用:2018/07/25 NY Times.com Asia. 5 Ways to Keep Cities Cooler During Heat Waves から抜粋。 https://nyti.ms/2OevUr5